Agustín de Iturbide (1783-1824), a military general who played a pivotal role in the Mexican War of Independence, crowned himself Emperor of Mexico during an elaborate ceremony inside Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral on July 21, 1822. He would be removed from office a year later, and was eventually captured and executed by firing squad on July 19, 1824, days after returning to Mexico following a short exile in Europe. His blood-soaked last testament, entitled “Manifesto al mundo de Agustín de Iturbide, o sean apuntes para la historia” (“Declaration to the world of Agustín de Iturbide, or rather notes for history”), found on his dead body after his execution, can be seen above. 

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