Mesa Point trail, Boca Negra Canyon, Petroglyphs National Monument, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
The following are segments from information signs around the trail:
Due to extended periods of drought, the Pueblo people searched for permanent sources of surface water that would sustain their agricultural lifestyle. Many people settled along the Rio Grande which provided an ample supply of water and fertile farmland. […]
Petroglyphs represent a valuable record of cultural expression and human occupation in the Rio Grande valley. They have deep spiritual significance to modern Pueblo groups as well as other indigenous people such as the Diné (Navajo) and the Apache. Similar images continue to have value in contemporary ceremonial life for many Southwestern tribes.
The associated meanings of some petroglyphs are known by a few Southwestern tribal groups, while the direct meanings of other images have been lost over the centuries. […] Identification of some petroglyphs is based on interpretations by today’s Pueblo people. We cannot say for certain what all images represent, nor is it appropriate for modern Pueblos to reveal the meaning of an image to others. Various Pueblos have differing opinions on meanings and any single images may have complex or multiple meanings based on its context.
Photos courtesy & taken by Lisa Jacobs.
From the Petroglyph National Monument website:
Petroglyphs are rock carvings (rock paintings are called pictographs) made by pecking directly on the rock surface using a stone chisel and a hammerstone. When the “desert varnish” on the surface of the rock was pecked off, the lighter rock underneath was exposed, creating the petroglyph. Archaeologists have estimated there may be over 25,000 petroglyph images along the 17 miles of escarpment within the monument boundary.
It is estimated 90% of the monument’s petroglyphs were created by the ancestors of today’s Pueblo Indians. Puebloans have lived in the Rio Grande Valley since before 500 A.D., but a population increase around 1300 A.D. resulted in numerous new settlements. It is believed that the majority of the petroglyphs were carved from about 1300 through the late 1680s.
The arrival of Spanish people in 1540 had a dramatic impact on the lifestyle of the pueblo people. In 1680 the Pueblo tribes rose up in revolt of Spanish rule, and drove the settlers out of the area and back to El Paso, Texas. In 1692 the Spanish resettled the area. As a result of their return, there was a renewed influence of the Catholic religion, which discouraged participation by the Puebloans in many of their ceremonial practices. As a consequence, many of these practices went underground, and much of the image making by the Puebloans decreased. A small percentage of the petroglyphs found within the park pre-date the Puebloan time period, perhaps reaching as far back as B.C. 2000. Other images date from historic periods starting in the 1700s, with petroglyphs carved by early Spanish settlers.
RIO DE JANEIRO — Sailing from the Angolan coast across the Atlantic, the slave ships docked here in the 19th century at the huge stone wharf, delivering their human cargo to the “fattening houses” on Valongo Street. Foreign chroniclers described the depravity in the teeming slave market, including so-called boutiques selling emaciated and diseased African children.
The newly arrived slaves who died before they even started toiling in Brazil’s mines were hauled to a mass grave nearby, their corpses left to decay amid piles of garbage. As imperial plantations flourished, diggers at the Cemitério dos Pretos Novos — Cemetery of New Blacks — crushed the bones of the dead, making way for thousands of new cadavers.
Now, with construction crews tearing apart areas of Rio de Janeiro in the building spree ahead of this year’s World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics, stunning archaeological discoveries around the work sites are providing new insight into the city’s brutal distinction as a nerve center for the Atlantic slave trade.
"Siege of Vera Cruz by the US troops under Major General Scott in March 1847, from surveys made by Major Tunbull, Captains Hughes, McClellan & Johnston. Lieutenants Derby & Hardcastle, top engineers."
The 20 day-long Siege of Veracruz, which began with the first amphibious assault performed by the United States military, ended with the takeover of the Mexican port city of Veracruz (then spelled Vera Cruz) on March 29, 1847. The troops of Maj. Gen, Winfield Scott, who would go on to make an unsuccessful run for the presidency of the United States, moved to take over the Mexican capital by the fall of that year. The Mexican-American War would be over by 1848.
Pancho Villa Attacks Columbus, New Mexico
In the early morning of March 9, 1916, General Francisco “Pancho” Villa and between 500-1,000 of his cavalry troops invaded the United States, attacking a military camp in the small town of Columbus, New Mexico.
In retaliation, on March 14, 1916, the United States Army launched The Pancho Villa Expedition with the mission to kill or capture General Villa.
US troops remained on Mexican soil until February 7, 1917. They were never able to kill or capture Villa.
The site in Columbus, New Mexico where General Villa and his troops invaded the United States is now Pancho Villa State Park.
Interviewed by Peter H. Stone
Gabriel García Márquez was interviewed in his studio/office located just behind his house in San Angel Inn, an old and lovely section, full of the spectacularly colorful flowers of Mexico City. The studio is a short walk from the main house. A low elongated building, it appears to have been originally designed as a guest house. Within, at one end, are a couch, two easy chairs, and a makeshift bar—a small white refrigerator with a supply of acqua minerale on top.
The most striking feature of the room is a large blown-up photograph above the sofa of García Márquez alone, wearing a stylish cape and standing on some windswept vista looking somewhat like Anthony Quinn.
García Márquez was sitting at his desk at the far end of the studio. He came to greet me, walking briskly with a light step. He is a solidly built man, only about five feet eight or nine in height, who looks like a good middleweight fighter—broad-chested, but perhaps a bit thin in the legs. He was dressed casually in corduroy slacks with a light turtleneck sweater and black leather boots. His hair is dark and curly brown and he wears a full mustache.
The interview took place over the course of three late-afternoon meetings of roughly two hours each. Although his English is quite good, García Márquez spoke mostly in Spanish and his two sons shared the translating. When García Márquez speaks, his body often rocks back and forth. His hands too are often in motion making small but decisive gestures to emphasize a point, or to indicate a shift of direction in his thinking. He alternates between leaning forward towards his listener, and sitting far back with his legs crossed when speaking reflectively.
Read more: The Paris Review, Winter 1981 No. 82.
Antonio Pigafetta, a Florentine navigator who went with Magellan on the first voyage around the world, wrote, upon his passage through our southern lands of America, a strictly accurate account that nonetheless resembles a venture into fantasy. In it he recorded that he had seen hogs with navels on their haunches, clawless birds whose hens laid eggs on the backs of their mates, and others still, resembling tongueless pelicans, with beaks like spoons. He wrote of having seen a misbegotten creature with the head and ears of a mule, a camel’s body, the legs of a deer and the whinny of a horse. He described how the first native encountered in Patagonia was confronted with a mirror, whereupon that impassioned giant lost his senses to the terror of his own image.
This short and fascinating book, which even then contained the seeds of our present-day novels, is by no means the most staggering account of our reality in that age. The Chronicles of the Indies left us countless others. Eldorado, our so avidly sought and illusory land, appeared on numerous maps for many a long year, shifting its place and form to suit the fantasy of cartographers. In his search for the fountain of eternal youth, the mythical Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca explored the north of Mexico for eight years, in a deluded expedition whose members devoured each other and only five of whom returned, of the six hundred who had undertaken it. One of the many unfathomed mysteries of that age is that of the eleven thousand mules, each loaded with one hundred pounds of gold, that left Cuzco one day to pay the ransom of Atahualpa and never reached their destination. Subsequently, in colonial times, hens were sold in Cartagena de Indias, that had been raised on alluvial land and whose gizzards contained tiny lumps of gold. One founder’s lust for gold beset us until recently. As late as the last century, a German mission appointed to study the construction of an interoceanic railroad across the Isthmus of Panama concluded that the project was feasible on one condition: that the rails not be made of iron, which was scarce in the region, but of gold.
Our independence from Spanish domination did not put us beyond the reach of madness. General Antonio López de Santana, three times dictator of Mexico, held a magnificent funeral for the right leg he had lost in the so-called Pastry War. General Gabriel García Moreno ruled Ecuador for sixteen years as an absolute monarch; at his wake, the corpse was seated on the presidential chair, decked out in full-dress uniform and a protective layer of medals. General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, the theosophical despot of El Salvador who had thirty thousand peasants slaughtered in a savage massacre, invented a pendulum to detect poison in his food, and had streetlamps draped in red paper to defeat an epidemic of scarlet fever. The statue to General Francisco Morazan erected in the main square of Tegucigalpa is actually one of Marshal Ney, purchased at a Paris warehouse of second-hand sculptures.
—Gabriel García Márquez’ Nobel Prize acceptance speech. Read the rest here.
On the afternoon of March 4, 1960, the French ship La Coubre exploded in Havana Harbor while carrying several tons of munitions, killing about 75 people and injuring hundreds more. Alberto Korda’s Guerrillero Heróico, the now-iconic image of Che Guevara shown above, was taken at a memorial service for the victims of the La Coubre explosion held on March 5, the following day.
Heitor Villa-Lobos, O trenzinho do caipira (The Little Train of the Brazilian Countryman), from Bachaianas Brasileiras, No. 2.
Mexican-born cinematographer Emmanuel “Chivo” Lubezki won an Academy Award for his work in Gravity. This is his sixth nomination. A lifelong friend and collaborator of Alfonso Cuarón, Lubezki’s first Oscar nomination came in 1995 with his work in Cuarón’s Hollywood debut, A Little Princess. Lubezki is the third Latin American-born cinematographer to win an Oscar, after Claudio MIranda (Life of Pi, 2012) and Guillermo Navarro (Pan’s Labyrinth, 2006).
Mexican native Alfonso Cuarón just became the first Latin American to win an Academy Award for Best Director. He is the second Mexican and fourth Latin American director to be nominated for an Oscar. The previous nominees are Alejandro González Iñárritu (Babel, 2006), Fernando Meirelles (City of God, 2003), and Héctor Babenco (Kiss of the Spider Woman, 1985). Cuarón also shared the Academy Award for Best Film Editing with Mark Sanger.